1 less than 2%
2 2% to 4.9%
3 5% to 9.9%
4 10% to 14.9%
5 15% to 24.9%
6 25% to 34.9%
7 35% or over
8 No Data
0 Less than 25
1 25 to 49
2 50 to 74
3 75 to 99
4 100 to 149
5 150 and over
6 No Data

Births by Caesarean Section

What does it mean ?

This indicator shows the number of births by caesarean section relative to all births. Birth by caesarean section requires specialist health worker skills, an operating theatre and availability of specific drugs and medical products.

Why does it matter ?

All pregnancies are associated with risk and when medically justified, a caesarean section can prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. However, because any surgery carries risk of complications, caesarean sections should not be performed unless it is medically required. According to the World Health Organisation, about 10-15 % of all births require delivery by caesarean section. As such, caesarean section rates lower than 10% indicates under-use and caesarean section rates over 15 % indicate over-use. Because birth by caesarean section requires specialist medical skills and health services, this indicators is sometimes used as a proxy indicator to measure the availability of quality of maternal health services in countries where data from health information systems and health facility surveys are limited.

How is it collected ?

Data on the percent of birth by caesarean section is usually derived from large scale, nationally representative surveys such as Demographic and Health (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), other national surveys. DHS/ MICS are household surveys where women are asked if they have given birth (usually in the last three or five years) and the circumstances surrounding the birth including if they had a caesarean section.

"The Increasing Trend in Caesarean Section Rates: Global, Regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014" Betrán, A., et al. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743929/

Adolescent Birth Rate

What does it mean ?

This indicator represents the number of babies born to girls and women aged 15-19 each year. It can be understood as the expected number of girls that will become pregnant between the ages of 15-19 each year out of 1,000 girls in that age group.

Why does it matter ?

In countries where child marriage is common, it is also likely that a high adolescent fertility rate will result. The marriage of girls followed by multiple childbearing either in early or late teen years is a violation of human and reproductive rights, as well as a missed opportunity to improve levels of female literacy, education and the economic progress that is associated with female participation in the labour force.

How is it collected ?

A national survey was undertaken in each country from a representative sample of households where women and girls were asked how many children they have given birth to and when they occurred. Using data from girls aged 15-19, a fertility rate was calculated by adding the number of births within the year before the survey, and dividing by the number of girls in the survey aged 15-19.

World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Fertility/